Prof J N Patel   |   Economics   |   K K College   |   Dhandhuka

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Proposed Research Work

(i) Project Title    : A Study on Problems of Common Water Resources with Reference to Mehsana District.

ii. Introduction

            Above proposed study is based on availability of water resources, the consumption, and requirement factors of water resources for industrial, agriculture & private uses.

• Origin of the Research Problem

            There have been studies conducted on water resources; there shrinkage and the measures to be undertaken for increase in water resources. The utilization factors contribute a lot for shrinkage of water resources. With the increase in population, the demand & supply of water has been disoriented. In order to save the civilization we have to properly use the available water for agricultural, Industrial and personal use. At the same time recharging the water resources for continuous supply of ground water. Earlier study has shown the marked decrease in water level & deterioration in the quality of water.

• Interdisciplinary Relevance

            The study is not only important as Economical point of view but there are other factors and discipline which will be benefited by the above proposed study. For example this study will try to understand the demand and supply problem of water resources and its economics accepts. At the same time the sociological accepts can be also understood as the availability factor of water has great impact on the overall life style of the society. Secondly the study contributes to geography by understanding the topography, marking the water resources and in nutshell understanding the cattle, flora fauna and also zoologically the study will contribute by understanding the impact of water resources on agriculture, plants and local herbs etc. And finally the impact of water resources on intricate fabric of interstate political milieu & industrialization.

• Review of Research and Development in the Subject:

             International status

The problem of water resources is global. If the study is presenting a solution then it can be utilized internationally and applied to the entire region having the similar factors and problems.

 

 National Status

At the national level work has been done to understand the problem along with environmental degradation, agricultural and industrialization related to it. This research will contribute to the regional as well as national study and help in deciding the applicable salutation at the national level  

             Significance of the study

There have been various measures undertaken by ministry of water resources, as well as national water policy has been formulated by government of India. The study is highly significant as the problem regarding the water resources, recharging, and utilization have been tried through various methods. This research will immensely help to form new government schemas and will be able to provide regional and to some extant national level

(iii) Objectives

            This study is an attempted to analyze the problem of common water resources with reference to Mehsana district of Gujarat. The water level in Mehsana has seen a marked decrease in last few years.

            The research will:-

(1)   Study the changes in decrease of water level and its causes.

(2)   The study attempts to understand the differential percentage in use of water and the increase in utilization of agricultural and industrial use.

(3)   The study of increase & decrees in problem of irrigation area & its causes.

(4)   The study of wastage during irrigation.

(5)   To understand the total usage of ground water and the state government policy regarding the ground water usage.

(6)   To understand the present situation and provide alternative management of water resources.

(7)   Propose solution to the existing water problem.

 

(iv) Methodology

            Firstly data collection will be with help of questioner from farmers, village panchayats, irrigation deprtment, etc. along with the information of demand & supply & electricity usage. Total rain fall of the area, and information of the area regarding water resources and irrigation.

            The data collection procured will be studies by percentage, average, co-relation multi co-relation by using t-test, F-test, etc. The geological reports will also be studied.

(v) Year-wise Plan of work and targets to be achieved.

2008-09 : Study of related material, reference books, journals, government policies, websites, irrigation systems, geological reports etc.

2009-10 : Preparing questioner, data collection fro various sources like from farmers, village panchayats, irrigation department, etc.

2010-11 : Analyzing a data, preparing conclusion and solutions related to the problem.

(vi)  Details of collaboration, if any intended

            (1) Sabarmati Jalashay yojana (Dharoi Dam)

            (2) Agriculture College, Dantiwada.

            (3) Water Supply Department, Mehsana.

SUMMARY

A Study on Problems of Common Water Resources

with Reference to Mehsana District.

            Water is the most important natural resource for humanity. All civilizations, from beginning have chosen the places near water for developing. It is an important part of the environment water is necessary for life, house hold use, Agriculture and Industries. In Asia 60 % water is consumed for Agricultural purpose.

            The best part of this resource is ability to recharge the sources. But due to mismanagement of the resources, the Augmented Marginal Cost has been increased. And therefore government has started water control policies. India has 2.5 % of the total land while 4 % of water resources. But at the some time 16 % of world population has to be sustained. India comes first in Irrigation Agriculture. With 75 million hectare agriculture land (According to 2000-2001 senses). With varied land like Rajasthan (100 m.m. Annual rainfall) to meghalaya (11000 m. m. average rainfall) Annual water consumption in India is about 600 Billion Sq. Mt. which is increasing with the demand in Agriculture, Industrialization of population increase. According to Katar sing  and Anil sisodiya by 2050 if we are unable to manage the water resources then India will face acute shortage of water.

Conflict over water is a grim reality today. The Indian states are already in dispute due to the water shortage Ex. Maharastra, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh and Hariyana. In Gujarat there is marked decrease in the ground level water.

            This study is an attempt to understand in depth the problem of water resources in mehsana district. The area covering 5392.76 Sq. Km. and with a population of 17,37,892. The annual rainfall is approximate 605 m. m., decreasing to the level  of 298 m. m. during the draught 68 % of  Agriculture land is irrigated with crops like Aniseeds, Zeera , and Isabgul requiring more water due to the increased water consumption. The water level is going down 10 to 12 meter every year, incrising the cost of agriculture.

            Above proposed study is based on availability of water resources, the consumption, and requirement factors of water resources for industrial, agriculture & private uses.

            There have been studies conducted on water resources, there shrinkage and the measures to be undertaken for Increase in water resources. The utilization factors contribute a lot for shrinkage of water resources. With the increase in population, the demand & supply of water has been disoriented. In order to save the civilization we have to properly use the available water for agricultural, Industrial and personal use. At the same time recharging the water resources for continuous supply of ground water. Earlier study has shown the marked decrease in water level & deterioration in the quality of water. Demand management involves increasing the efficiency of water use by recycling, promotion of water saving technologies, pricing mechanisms, and highly interlinked. For example, sustainability of institutions is often critically linked with the irrigation of market principles into the institutional arrangements. Similarly, prevailing incentive and disincentive structures influence the adoption of water-saving technologies.  Institutional reforms in water sector have been focused on surface irrigation systems, that too at the farmer or user level. Reforms should be addressed at different levels, that is users irrigation developments, and political functionaries whose support and willingness to reform is the starting point of any reform.

            The study is not only important as Economical point of view but there are other factors and discipline which will be benefited by the above proposed study. For example this study will try to understand the demand & supply problem of water resources & its economics accepts. At the same time the sociological accepts can be also understood as the availability factor of water has great impact on the overall life style of the society. Secondly the study contributes to geography by understanding the topography, marking the water resources and in nutshell understanding the cattle, flora fauna and also zoologically the study will contribute by understanding the impact of water resources on agriculture, plants and local herbs etc. And finally the impact of water resources on intricate fabric of interstate political milieu & industrialization.

The problem of water resources is global. If the study is presenting a solution then it can be utilized internationally and applied to the entire region having the similar factors and problems.

At the national level work has been done to understand the problem along with environmental degradation, agricultural and industrialization related to it. This research will contribute to the regional as well as national study and help in deciding the applicable salutation at the national level  

There have been various measures undertaken by ministry of water resources, as well as national water policy has been formulated by government of India. The study is highly significante as the problem regarding the water resources, recharging, and utilization have been tried through various methods. This research will immensely help to form new government scheams and will be able to provide regional and to some extant national level.

Selection of the field for the study

 

      In some area of Gujarat, particularly the mehasana district, the water level is going very deep because of the deep-well system in the area. As a result, the ground-water level has gone very deep, the quality of water is affected, the cost of irrigation has gone up and demand for power-supply is increased. If these problems are not solved properly, the development of agriculture can be seriously effected. If the state government comes forward with some policy and orders for the prohibitions, the development of agriculture can be stopped. Therefore, the study is an attempt to suggest development oriented financial steps.

 

      In the present study, the area of North Gujarat and Mehasana district is selected. There are total 9 talukas and 906 villages in this district. The land area of this district is 5392.76 Sq. K.Ms. According to the counting done during 2001, the total number of the population of this district is 17,37,892. The population per square K. M. is 418. The average rainfall in the district is 605 m.m.. The district has 90% of the irrigation area.

 

      For the study, 39 villages are selected from 9 talukas of the district 10 families from each villages are included for the study.

 

            Objectives of the project:

(1) Study the changes in decrease of water level and its causes.

(2) The study attempts to understand the differential percentage in use of water and the increase in utilization of agricultural use.

(3) The study of increase & decrees in problem of irrigation area & its causes.

(4) The study of wastage during irrigation.

(5) To understand the total usage of ground water and the state government policy regarding the ground water usage.

(6) To understand the present situation and provide alternative management of water resources.

 

Data-Collection:

                 The research is based on comparative study. In that, reference the water resource management of the world. India in Gujarat state’s mehsana district is compared. Along with that the consumption of the water, the quantity of the water its wastage all this things are also compared. The data is collected by questionnaire based on the villages of mehsana district. The data is classified according to the objectives of the study. The tables giving information about water resources are prepared in the study.

(1) Secondary) Information:

                 For the present study, the secondary information is collected from the national level and international level water resource management. The availability of water for different kinds of uses, the present and future demand of water, the capital investment for water resources and fingers regarding expenditure and income by utilizing water resources, the idea of the future strategy, the different document provided by the government, journals and books all these things are utilized for getting secondary information.

      (b) Primary information:

           Primary information is received by questionnaires in which the data is related to implementation of policy regarding water management, distribution of water, information new water-resources, demand of water, information regarding income and expenditure, the working of N.G.O. in rural area, and are collected the form of questionnaire is given as an appendix at the end of thesis.

 

Limitation of the study:

(1)      This study is done by keeping in view the water resource management analysis of Gujarat, India and World. At last the information about water resource management of mehasana district is given. The pried of time is covered from 1999-01 to 2009-10.

(2)   The conclusion of the study is arrived only by the analysis of the figures given in the tables and suggestions are also based on it.

(3) In this study demand of water, supply, expenses, income etc water-related table are analyzed by the quantification of statistical tables. On that base percentage, methods, average rate act. are presented.

(4)  This is not a study depending on ideology but it a sort of the explorative studies inquiring into the water supply management and water-resources of the area.


The general conclusions of the study:

(1)            The quantity of worth-utilizing water is very limited at world level. In this kind of situation, very limited quantity is available for drinking and various economic activities. On the other side the demand of water is increasing day –by- day due to higher rate of population agricultural development, fast process of industrialization and expectations for a high life – style.  For that reason, the water availability per had is fatly coming down.

(2)              The distribution of water is highly imbalance at state level country level and world level also. There is more scarcity of water in north Gujarat saurastra and cutch region then other areas of Gujarat.

(3)             In mehasana district the ground water level has gone down remarkably due to its extreme utilization. This area has entered into dark over exploited zone in regard to the ground water development.

(4)             The quality of water is soil at a dangerous level due to lack of awareness regarding the use of water supply, dirty water released from big industries and uncontrolled use of water in the field of agriculture.

(5)             87 % area of Gujarat belongs to the dry and half dry area of the country geographically. This area suffers from the scarcity of water due to the irregular rain fall or less rain fall.

(6)             The total quantity of worth-utilizing water is limited at the World level. In the same way the quantity of water with reference to population is distributed unequally in North-gujarat, Kutch, Saursatra, Middle South Gujarat areas.

(7)             On the earth the total quantity of the natural water resource is 1.4 billion cubic Km.

(8)             Total 97.3% water of the earth is salty and not suitable for use.

(9)             At World level, less than 11% water is available for human uses. This includes lakes, rivers and groung water.

(10)        0.06% of water worth-utilizing is in the form of humidity on the earth the portion of this water is very limited however it passes through the humidity of the atmosphere.

(11)        Looking at the percentage of population and availability of drinking water-resources. The highest portion of drinking water resources is available in Brazil. The Population is limited in that country. While in Egypt the worth-utilizing water is only 0.006% and the portion of population is 1.10% in the country.

(12)        From the total worth-utilizing water of the world, 8% is utilized for domestic porpose, 23% of water is utilized for industrial purpose and 69% water is utilized for agricultural porpose.

(13)        In Asia there is 32.3% water resources of the world while 61.2% total population of the world is here.

(14)        In Gujarat there is availability of 2.63% water resources while the proportion at population is 4.03% here.

(15)        Looking from the various sorts of water utilizations in the state. 89% of water is utilized for agricultural purpose while only 4% of water resources is utilized for domestic and cattling purpose.

(16)        In the case of the rates of irrigation, there is high rates for crops and nominal rates of irrigation for crops of various grains.

(17)        In the context of Gujarat current average expense per unit is Rs. 3.71 while average price per unit is Rs. 0.50.

(18)        There is a high degree of salt and sodium chloride in underground water in mehsana district due to over exploitation of water.

(19)        Dharoi irrigation system is the biggest in Mehsana district. 226 villafes get irrigation advantage and potable water from this system.

(20)        1115 hectares is irrigated by small irrigation system like ponds.

(21)        1112 hectares are benefited by 91 check dams with storage capacity of 189.71 million sq.ft.

(22)        Water exploitation in mehsana district is 14.62% out of 9700.86 M.C.M. at Gujarat state level.

(23)        In mehsana district, average literacy rate is 65.42% and aver family size is 4.16.

(24)        Out of total cultivated area of entire distinct, 78.38% is irrigated.

(25)        In 2001, percentages of villages getting water for potable and household consumption is : wells(33.33), tankers(12.82), underground wells(92.30). hand pumps(2.56), canals(7.67), ponds(0.00) while percentages in 2009 is : wells(15.38), tankers(0.00), underground wells(92.30), hand pumps (7.69), canals(7.69), ponds(2.56).

(26)        For wastage management, family percentages are ; built gutters(46.15%), wells(26.92), open gutters(26.92).

(27)        Average energy expenses for potable water and household consumption water is 70%.

(28)        Revenue per head through water tax is Rs. 20.18 and expenses are Rs. 35.63, mining panchats bear loss of Rs. 15.45.

(29)        Area in District irrigation by wells (93.62%) canal(6.40%),check dame(0.05%),ponds(0.92 %).

(30)        In Mehsana district, out of 1520 underground wells, 1142 are out of use.similary out of 740 wells, 50%are out of use.

(31)        Average land possession is 12.92 vigho.

(32)        In area of study out of gross income, 73.14% is net income irrigation expenditure 9.58%.

(33)        Out of gross income, net income is 70.38% with irrigation cost 10.08% with highest in kadi, 12.93% and lowest in Satlasana 7.67%.

(34)        Correlation between gross revenue and gross expenditure is 0.98 meaning expenses increase as income increases. Total income irrigation expenses correlation 0.982.

(35)        Total income irrigation expenses correlation 0.982

(36)        Extremity of land in area is 1:1:30 means maximum no of crops are taken.

(37)        In area of study, edu-income correlation is 0.58.

(38)        In area of study, of 390 families of 39 villages,348 ditches, 390 use kyara and 20 use spray and drip irrigation.

 

Suggestion

(1)       There is inequality in rates of potable water at world level. In undeveloped nations, rates of water are same scenario is in Gujarat.

(2)       In undeveloped nations, irrigation water rates are very low. Even management, maintenance not met with India has worse situation. State government should improve rates.

(3)       Potable water is top priority. Rate of water can be fixed by capacity to pay.

(4)       Service cost can be applied to irrigation cost.

(5)       Rates can be fixed to meet expenses.

(6)       There are many ways to store rainwater like underground tanks, well/bore recharge, and pump recharge. Every farmer can afford these cheap methods.

(7)       Fore storage and prevention of wastage of water, government should propagate through door darshan, Radio, information ministry. Economic incentive should be provided.

(8)       Gujarat should consider shortage of electricity. In addition, how can this are overcome. Not only management and engineers, but also public should think over this.

(9)       We can lessen the pumping charge by rising under ground water level.

(10)    Sprinklers and Drip irrigation are the best systems. Farmers cannot afford this because of inequality. However, if they implement these to some extent, wastage of water can be prevented.

(11)    Proper action should be taken, as canels of Dharoi are broken often.

(12)    Wastage of water can be prevented by fixing water charge according to quantity, not according to area of land irrigated.